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Research on Canada at the UW is exceptional, including projects that span from documentaries about First Nations to food security, border issues, public health, endangered aboriginal languages, etc. Please see below for articles by our Affiliates on their most current research grants and projects.
Charles Emlet won the award, Fulbright Visiting Research Chair in Science and the Environment at McMaster University. Charles is currently working on a research project called, “Understanding the Lived Experiences of Older Adults Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: An Examination of Strengths and Resilience in a Vulnerable Population”. This project will examine the lived experiences of older, HIV-positive Canadians through in-depth qualitative interviews. The Fulbright program will run from approximately February - May, 2013.
Language preservation and use among First Nations children of the Cowichan tribe in British Columbia
Comparing US-Canada Border Regions
Anne Goodchild and Matt Klein, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Linguistics Symposium on Romance Languages
Julia Herschensohn, Chair, Linguistics
Managing the Canada-U.S. Border
Anne Goodchild, Civil and Environmental Engineering
First Nations Food Sovereignty
Charlotte Coté, American Indian Studies
Simon Fraser Professors engage with UWT Masters of Education students
Annette Henry, Education
Near Border Operations and Logistical Efficiency: Implications for Policy Makers(program and paper)
Anne Goodchild and Matt Klein, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Marine Conservation is Focus for 2009-2010 Canada-U.S. Fulbright Visiting Chair
Rob Williams, Canada-U.S. Fulbright Visiting Chair
Improving Education for Toronto's Diverse Students
Annette Henry, Education
Profiling Older Adults Living with HIV/AIDS in Toronto
Charles A. Emlet, Social Work
Canadian and Korean Arctic Interests
Vladimir Kaczynski, Marine Affairs
International Networks in Cross-Border Public Health
Impact of the 2008 International Canadian Studies Institute at the UW
Carl Sander, Burke Museum
Viewing Indian Treaties from Both Sides of the US-Canada Border
Alexandra Harmon, American Indian Studies
A Comparative View of Diversity in the United States and Canada
Cherry McGee Banks, Education, UW Bothell
The 6th Annual Native Voices Film Festival Explores Cross Border Histories and Challenges
Daniel Hart, Canadian Studies / Native Voices
French Professor Writes Award-Winning Novel Based in Québec
Denyse Delcourt, French and Italian Studies
From Poutine to P-Patches: Learning From Canadian and U.S. Food Policy Councils
Branden Born, Urban Design and Planning
Expanding Cross-Border Partnerships at the Northwest Center for Public Health
Jack Thompson, Northwest Center for Public Health Practice
Researching Endangered Languages in British Columbia
Sharon Hargus, Professor, Linguistics
Canada's Northwest Passage a Source of Legal Controversy
Vincent Gallucci, Affiliated Faculty of Canadian Studies and Professor, Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, was quoted by The Epoch Times in an article on the geopolitical tensions regarding Canada’s Northwest Passage. The article, "Northwest Passage opens new frontier, new challenges," discusses future issues that will result as the melting of the Arctic ice cap increases. Vince's current research includes the legal framework for the Arctic Ocean, China's interest in the region, and off-shore oil development in Russia.
Click here to read article.
Over 60 faculty and researchers representing 24 departments across 11 professional schools, as well as all three UW campuses, contribute to knowledge and expertise on Canada, its relationship to the United States, and its role in global affairs.
Frédéric Tremblay (left), Délégation du Québec à Los Angeles, with Fritz Wagner, Urban Design & Planning, discuss how the Québec grants will be utilized to build Québec studies at the U.W. (06/12)
Fritz Wagner, Urban Design and Planning, is co-author of this book focused on comparative research and international education in urban studies. “Urban processes are increasingly transnational and the comparative approach for studying urban issues is relevant to the globalization paradigm that shapes the public agenda of communities all over the world. The consortium NEXOPOLIS was established in 2004 to develop a workable theoretical and conceptual framework that enabled graduate students and faculty members from six North American universities to take part in comparative urban research in Canadian, American and Mexican cities” (Introduction). The participating Canadian and U.S. universities included University of Washington, San Diego University, Ryerson University, Toronto, and l’Université Laval, Québec City.
“The project proposed a dual objective: to develop international competency in students, often referred to as the international profile, and to reinforce comparative urban studies at the six participating universities … Academic mobility exchange thus became NEXOPOLIS’ pivotal tool for achieving its goal of developing a comparative program of study in the areas of urban revitalization” (Introduction).
The tri-lingual book includes a chapter on “Le Cas de Québec, Québec.” The book is co-authored with Mario Carrier, l’Université Québec, and Régent Cabana, University of New Orleans.
NEXOPOLIS was funded by the Program for North American Mobility in Higher Education and administered collectively by the U.S. Department of Education’s Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education, Human Resources Development Canada, and the Secretary of Pubic Education in Mexico.
by Morna McEachern, Social Work
“All Aboard the CCGS Harper to a Glorious Ice-Free North” by Avery Ascher
(CCGS stands for Canadian Coast Guard Ship, the designation on Canada’s fleet of ice breakers)
“Canada and the US need to join forces when it comes to the Arctic.” Lloyd Axworthy
This being election year in the USA, imagine an electoral district more than twice the size of Washington State with a total population of 75,000 people. This describes the Churchill riding (voting district) in subarctic, northern Manitoba. Within this riding, the town of The Pas is home to the University College of the North, which hosted an important symposium Gateways North, Expansion, Convergence and Change. The keynote speaker was Tomson Highway, Order of Canada, playwright, novelist and indigenous activist. Mayors from two towns, the MP from Churchill riding, the predominantly Cree elder council who are one of the governing boards of UCN, scientists, artists, historians, Cree dancers and hunters all participated and shared knowledge.
As part of developing a field institute for US and Canadian students and faculty in Churchill, Manitoba, summer of 2013, I had the privilege of attending the symposium. Starting by making connections and receiving invitations to work together, at the Universities of Manitoba and Winnipeg, where Lloyd Axworthy, renown statesman, is president, I took a ten hour bus ride north to The Pas.
In The Pas, I was welcomed and spent two days of intense learning. The Cree elders took me under their wings and told me many wonderful stories of the land, the people, the history, the horrors of residential schools, and the strength of traditions. One story was of a community where the water main had broken and they had to wait an extra month this year for the winter roads (when the lakes freeze and trucks can reach communities to which there are no land roads). The organizer of the conference told me that I did not need to bring winter clothes. The ice had broken up at least three weeks early. The textile art of the fraying of the polar bear and the artist’s well researched presentation about the politics and economics of the arctic and the polar bear as the canary in the mine of global warming were bookends to the stories.
If Canada and the US are to join forces in relationship to the Arctic, it is essential that those of us who live in the south (and Winnipeg is considered the south in The Pas, which is only in the sub arctic) become educated and consider the rich and multifaceted lands, natural environments, peoples of the Arctic in our economic, political and cultural foci. Please consider joining us in Churchill and environs next summer.
Dr. Greg Elmer
by Phil Howard, Communication
On Wednesday April 27th, Dr. Greg Elmer gave a lecture on the role of streaming media in contemporary Canadian politics. He is the is Bell Globemedia Research Chair and Director of the Infoscape Centre for the Study of Social Media, Ryerson University, Toronto. The lecture he gave features material he preparing with co-author with F. McKelvey and G. Langlois for a forthcoming book, "The Permanent Campaign: New Media, New Politics" with Peter lang. Elmer is an internationally renowned scholar with expertise in political communication and digital media. In the last few Canadian elections, Dr. Elmer has also built “real-time” social science projects that analyze the flow of content out of campaign organizations of Canadian political parties, delivering the analysis to journalists and the broader public. His lecture, “Live Research? Reading the New Political Party Machines in Canada”, was co-sponsored by Canadian Studies and the Department of Communication, but in attendance were additional students and faculty from political science and the information school.
This program was supported, in part, by funding from a Canadian Studies Center Program Enhancement Grant, Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, Government of Canada.
From left, Vancouver artist, Susan McCallum, Charlotte; Charlotte Coté; Charlotte’s niece Jenoah, and Cynthia del Rosario, UW Director of Graduate Recruitment and Retention at the launch for Coté's book, "Spirits of our Whaling Ancestors," November 2010.
by Charlotte Coté, American Indian Studies
For Native scholars in Canada and the United States, writing is both an act of resistance and an act of re-empowerment. However, many challenges arise when we write about ourselves and our respective communities. I used this presentation to discuss the challenges I faced when writing my recent book, "Spirits of Our Whaling Ancestors. Revitalizing Makah and Nuu-chah-nulth Traditions". I discussed the process of writing about my experiences growing up in a First Nations community in Canada and some of the issues this raised about sharing cultural and community knowledge. I faced two main questions: How do I write about something that is so personal? How do I write myself into the history I am analyzing?
I discussed how difficult it was to decide what family, community, and cultural knowledge I would share in my book and talked about how I decided what I would share. As Native scholars, we are challenged to present a study that is comprehensive and academically rigorous while at the same time is sensitive to our communities and respectful of our people. I discussed how I attempted to balance the utilization of written and archival material with my community's oral stories, my family history, and my own personal reflections. I ended my presentation by sharing with the other panelists and audience that, while this process was deeply challenging, and at times, very stressful, I also found it to be very rewarding. I was able to write our history using the words of my ancestors, my relatives, and my community members, utilizing stories that informed my day-to-day life. This was truly rewarding.
Charlotte Coté presented her paper, "Writing from the Inside Out," at the Native American/Indigenous Studies Association conference held May 19-21 in Sacramento, California. Travel was supported, in part, by funding from a Canadian Studies Center Program Enhancement Grant, Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, Government of Canada.
Francisco Ibanez-Carrasco, Ontario HIV Treatment Network, David Brennan, University of Toronto and Charles Emlet, University of Washington Tacoma
Charles Emlet, Professor of Social Work at the University of Washington Tacoma and Canadian colleagues from the University of Toronto, Ryerson University and the Ontario HIV Treatment Network presented initial results from their study on older adults living with HIV in Ontario at the 20th Annual Canadian Conference on HIV/AIDS Research, held in Toronto, Ontario, in April.
The poster session entitled Protective and risk factors associated with HIV stigma in a population of older adults living with HIV, examined factors associated with increased stigma among 377 adults, 50 years of age and older, that are enrolled in the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study. This research is funded by a grant from the Government of Canada (Emlet, PI) as well as a grant to Dr. David Brennan, Assistant Professor, Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social work at the University of Toronto from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Additional presentations and publications from the results of this research are expected in the coming months.
This program was supported, in part, by a Faculty Research Grant from the Government of Canada.
Hine Waitere, New Zealand, Director of Indigenous Leadership Centre, Te Whare Wananga o Awanuiarangi, Tribal University of Awanuiarangi, Whakatane, NZ, in deep conversation with Dr. Jenny Lawn, Massey University, NZ and Dr. Sue Abel, University of Aukland, NZ.
By Dian Million, American Indian Studies
I had the honor this February 21-24 to attend an International Research Linkage Workshop – Living Together Differently: Indigene-Settler-Migrant Relations in Canada and Aotearoa New Zealand – to generate comparative interdisciplinary research programs and publications. A goal of our intensive two-day workshop was to further cement an emerging interdisciplinary research network between teams of scholars working on issues of redress, reconciliation, and national futures in Canada and Aotearoa, New Zealand. The workshop enhanced comparative discussions and put plans in order to lay the groundwork for a more extensive, permanent, research network. More specifically, we focused was on the types of sociality and ethics of care imagined as the basis for future relationships between particular communities within settler nations.
Both Canada and Aotearoa, New Zealand are “settler nations” in which national governments, in recent decades, have engaged in a politics of apology and redress. Such redress politics aim to repair past injustices in order to heal conflict-ridden relationships with indigenous peoples and former immigrant communities, aiming to build more peaceful futures and to manage and celebrate diversity within nations. Apologies and reparations are always Janus-faced in that they simultaneously look backwards to the past as well as forward toward a “reconciled” future. The question of the limits and possibilities of the future intercultural relationships that such “reconciliation” processes generate is pivotal for settler nations such as Canada and Aotearoa, New Zealand that are deemed to be global exemplars of pluralist nation-states.
As an American Indian Studies scholar I was interested in discussing and critiquing the initiative Canada has taken in using Human Rights resolution models such as Truth and Reconciliation and reparations to bring Canadian Aboriginal peoples into conversation with the state for historical injustices. The Indigenous peoples of Aotearoa, New Zealand – the Maori – have also been involved with such a model for building new more aware decolonized political and social relations with that state for over two decades.
Samah Sabra, ABD, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada and Dr. Karla Milo-Schaeff, University of Otago, Wellington, NZ
I was excited to participate in this research network for a number of reasons but most importantly to strengthen the UW relationship with such an endeavor and to expand the strength of Canadian research on our campus. Participation enabled me to update my materials for my classes on American Indian and Canadian Aboriginal family and child histories.
Dian Million (Athabascan), Assistant Professor, American Indian Studies, explores the politics of knowledge and intellectual production for Native and Indigenous peoples. Her book manuscript is Therapeutic Nations: State violence, Indigenous community healing in a Neoliberal World Order.
Travel for participation and research was supported, in part, by funding from a Canadian Studies Center Program Enhancement Grant, Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, Government of Canada.
Sponsors and discussants pose for a photo following the symposium. From left, Greg Poelzer and Heather Exner-Pirot, International Centre for Northern Governance; Ken Coates, University of Waterloo; Gary Wilson, University of Northern British Columbia; Thierry Rodon, Université Laval; Beverly Young, Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada; and Ross Macdonald, Transport Canada.
In mid-March the International Centre for Northern Governance and Development, University of Saskatchewan, hosted a DFAIT symposium to showcase the research of past Circumpolar Fellowship recipients including Nadine Fabbi. Sixteen graduate students from across Canada – representing political science, history, education and other disciplines – provided differing approaches to Canadian policy initiatives in the Arctic.
Nadine, a doctoral student with the Educational Leadership and Policy studies program at the University of British Columbia, was one of ten students to be awarded a Canada’s Role in the Circumpolar World research fellowship in 2010. The fellowship supported the research and writing of the paper, “Toward a National Inuit Education Strategy.” Fabbi’s research explores the relationship between new concepts of territory found in international relations theory, particularly as these theories related to the Arctic region; and emerging Arctic foreign and educational policies.
Canada’s Role in the Circumpolar World research fellowships are co-sponsored by University of the Arctic and Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, and are facilitated by the International Centre for Northern Governance and Development. The purpose of the fellowships is to foster innovative research and policy development on a range of issues related to Canada in the circumpolar world.
Funding to attend the symposium was provided by the Government of Canada and the Center’s Title VI grant, U.S. Department of Education, Office of International Education Programs Service.
By Richard Watts
|Rich Watts (far right), French and Italian Studies, organized the visit by Marshall. From right, Albert Sbragia, Chair, French and Italian Studies; Bob Marshall (fill in affiliation here); and Marcia Ostashewski, Canada-US Fulbright Visiting Chair.|
Academics are nomads of sorts, and academic departments typically too fixed and confining a home for us. I arrived at the University of Washington in Fall 2009, having spent the previous 11 years at Tulane University in New Orleans as faculty in French Studies but with affiliations in several interdisciplinary programs. As pleased as I am to have landed in a vibrant department of French and Italian Studies at the UW, it has been equally gratifying to be invited into other intellectual homes on campus, and one of the most lively and welcoming has been the Canadian Studies Center.
My research in francophone postcolonial studies (cf. Packaging Post/Coloniality: The Manufacture of Literary Identity in the Francophone World, 2005) has tended not to focus on French-speaking Canada, but my undergraduate courses and graduate seminars address the challenge that Québec and other francophone regions in Canada pose to dominant ways of thinking about global “francophonia.” At once wholly removed from the French colonial sphere and yet resolutely postcolonial (in its relation to Canadian and U.S. “anglophonia”), Québec dramatically alters our expectations of the cultural alignments that a francophone space can maintain with France and, for that matter, with other francophone countries.
It was with a view to getting scholars in and beyond French Studies to think differently about Québec that I obtained support from the Canadian Studies Center for the visit of Prof. William Marshall of the University of Stirling, Scotland. Marshall’s earlier scholarship on Québec (cf. Quebec National Cinema, 2001) sought to understand the province’s cinema on its own local or “national” terms. His most recent work, The French Atlantic: Travels in Culture and History (2010) casts Québec in a more global frame.
On January 13, 2011, he presented work from this recent project at the UW, focusing on how films such as Le crime d’Ovide Plouffe and novels such as Maria Chapdelaine trouble the presumed filiation of Québec to France, signaling instead its role as a culturally autonomous but connected site in “a decentered French Atlantic.” Many thanks to Canadian Studies for sponsoring a stimulating talk that led to a spirited discussion among scholars and students from a broad range of fields.
Richard Watts is Associate Professor of French in the Division of French and Italian Studies. He has research and teaching interests in the literature and cinema of the francophone world and is currently at work on a project that examines the rhetoric of environmental change in contemporary cultural texts.
This project was supported, in part, by funding from the Center’s Title VI grant, US Department of Education, Office of International Education Programs Service.
|Brinda Jegatheesan joined the Center as an Affiliated Faculty in Spring 2008.|
Three Cowichan First Nations Elders (a medicine woman, a native language teacher and a social worker) visited the UW campus in October 2010. The elders are currently working with Dr. Brinda Jegatheesan (Assistant Professor, College of Education) in her research studies on native language preservation and loss, and human-animal interaction and its impact on vulnerable native children. The elders live on a reservation on Vancouver Island, British Columbia.
The elders presented in Jegatheesan’s undergraduate course, EDSPE 419 Families with Young Children with Special and Diverse Needs. The course consisted of 88 Early Childhood seniors and juniors in the College of Education. Using ceremonial drums and rattles, the elders sang, prayed and narrated stories on various issues that impacted native families and their children. As elders who survived the residential schools, they talked about the impact of these schools at the societal, familial and individual level. The stressed on the loss of language, culture, traditional knowledge and parenting skills, loss of connections to relatives and community and a loss of identity. They spoke to the importance of culture and language preservation in young native children, the learning styles that were unique to these children, indigenous beliefs about children with special needs and traditional health and wellness intervention practices.
Majority of the undergraduate students revealed that they were unaware of the residential schools and that their exposure to native people was through books and cinemas, making it a first time for them to meet native people ‘face to face.’ The elders made a personal request to the undergraduate students, as the next generation of teachers and service providers, to be culturally responsive and compassionate to the needs of native families and children, and most importantly to believe that native children can learn and be successful in schools.
Brinda Jegatheesan is an Assistant Professor in the College of Education and Affiliated Faculty with the Canadian Studies Center. In the summer of 2010 she was awarded a Center research grant to further her research project on First Nation language preservation on Vancouver Island and has a program grant in 2011 to further First Nation guest visits to the UW. These projects are supported, in part, by funding from the Center’s Program Enhancement Grant, Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Government of Canada and Title VI grant, US Department of Education, Office of International Education Programs Service.
|From left, Vancouver artist, Susan McCallum, Charlotte, Charlotte’s niece Jenoah, and Cynthia del Rosario, UW Director of Graduate Recruitment and Retention.|
by Charlotte Coté
The Book Launch Event on October 28th for Spirits of Our Whaling Ancestors was a great success! Tleko (thank you) to my family from Canada who came to support me and shared our beautiful Tseshaht songs and dances with the audience. I also want to thank the University of Washington Press and the Burke Museum for making this a wonderful event. Tleko to my family and friends, and everyone who came to show your support and helped make this such a memorable evening. Uu'uq ch'ap'ap 'athle'itsuu - You all make me happy!
Following the removal of the gray whale from the Endangered Species list in 1994, the Makah tribe of northwest Washington State announced that they would revive their whale hunts; their relatives, the Nuu-chah-nulth Nation of British Columbia, shortly followed suit. The Makah whale hunt of 1999 was an event of international significance, connected to the worldwide struggle for aboriginal sovereignty and to the broader discourses of environmental sustainability, treaty rights, human rights, and animal rights. It was met with enthusiastic support and vehement opposition.
|SOLEFood inner city farm located on a quarter acre in Vancouver's downtown eastside.|
Lucy Jarosz's research project, "How Local Food Systems Address Hunger" compares how hunger is addressed through community gardening and urban farming in Vancouver, British Columbia, and Seattle, Washington. Through a series of interviews with gardeners, urban farmers, food distribution and food banking directors, it examines the motivations and experiences of the people working to produce and distribute fresh, locally and organically grown produce to those who cannot afford to buy it. This comparative project investigates the emergence and development of urban gardening and farming projects designed to give food to those most vulnerable members of each community in order to identify the constraints and challenges local food systems face as the numbers of hungry people increase in each nation due to changes in social policy, the current economic crisis and the continued global and regional rise in food prices.
|La Cosecha Community Garden, which blends art and food and is part of the HEAL Program, a diabetes self-management program for Spanish-speaking residents of Vancouver.|
Lucy Jarosz is an Associate Professor in the Department of Geography. Her research centers upon food and agriculture, rural poverty and inequality, and rural development and environmental change. She was awarded a 2010-11 Faculty Research Grant from the Government of Canada for her project comparing local food systems in British Columbia and Washington. For Professor Jarosz's homepage see: http://faculty.washington.edu/jarosz/.
Nadine Fabbi was awarded a Leadership Award from the Education Leadership and Policy Studies program at the University of British Columbia to support her research on political activism occurring in the Arctic with a focus on the role of Canada's Inuit and Arctic higher education.
|Nadine with students from Sakha State University in Yakutsk, Siberia at the University of the Arctic meeting in June 2010.|
Arctic Aboriginal peoples are engaged in Arctic foreign policy and educational policy at the international level for the first time in history. They have claimed Permanent Participant status on the Arctic Council, a high-level intergovernmental body formed in 1996. This status provides Arctic peoples with a legitimate voice in resolving transnational issues almost on par with nation-states. In 2001 the Council endorsed University of the Arctic (UArctic), an international network of mostly Arctic institutions created in part to provide policy-relevant research to the Council. The UArctic mission is to provide education in, for and by northerners and claims to have a strong Aboriginal epistemological foundation. What is occurring in terms of the political mobilization of Arctic Aboriginal peoples has the potential to impact foreign policy and higher education in innovative ways.
The Inuit are one of eight Arctic Aboriginal peoples who are playing a key role in Circumpolar governance via the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (Canada's national Inuit association), the Inuit Circumpolar Council (international Inuit association), the Arctic Council and UArctic. Recently the Inuit have redrawn the map of Canada, renamed the Arctic region, and established an international Inuit sovereignty declaration. Nadine's research addresses these effective political strategies and asks what the impact of policy and spatial/territorial activism will have on Arctic foreign and educational policy in the future.
|Morna McEachern relaxing in Italy after being awarded her doctorate in Social Work.|
Morna McEachern completed her PhD in social welfare policy in June and has been hired to teach history and policy courses in the Master’s of Social Work program at the University of Washington’s (UW) School of Social Work. Her primary research focuses on comparing Canadian and U.S. sexual health education policies and their relationship to teen pregnancy in both countries. She is also contributing to a study about the effects of different Canadian and U.S. social welfare safety nets on the social well-being of families and communities who find themselves divided by the 49th Parallel.
The study focuses on the many Indigenous communities and the most recent immigrants including refugees. In addition to teaching at the UW, Morna is also an affiliated faculty member of the University of Victoria in British Columbia where she is continuing her historical research about the divergence and convergence of sexual health education policies and practices in Canada and the United States.
Morna was an affiliated graduate student of the Canadian Studies Center during her doctoral program and served as Chair of the Annual Canadian Studies Graduate Symposium in 2008-09, Re-imagining Health Care: What we can Learn from Canada. The symposium was co-chaired by the UW Canada-U.S. Fulbright Visiting Chair, Michael Orsini, University of Ottawa. (For more on the annual symposium see http://jsis.washington.edu/canada/graduate/symposium.shtml.)
|Dr. Emlet, Social Work, UW Tacoma (right) and Dr. David Brennan, University of Toronto, review data for their research project.|
Dr. Charles Emlet of the University of Washington Tacoma and Dr. David Brennan of the University of Toronto has initiated an analysis of date from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network (OHTN) cohort study. In the first research project of its kind, Drs. Emlet and Brennan, along with other Canadian colleagues, are examining data on older adults living with HIV/AIDS in Ontario Canada. The research hopes to elucidate both the characteristic of older adults in Ontario with HIV disease but also to better understand both protective factors and deleterious elements that impact their lives.
Data for this project was provided to the researchers through the Ontario HIV Treatment Network (OHTN). The Ontario HIV Treatment Network is a collaborative network of researchers, health service providers, policy makers, community members and people with HIV who work together to promote excellence and innovation in HIV treatment, research, education in Ontario.
Data analysis has just begun on the 1129 adults age 50 and over include in the OHTN cohort study data. Drs. Emlet and Brennan have enlisted the assistance of Sarah Brennenstuhl, a doctoral student in Public Health and the University of Toronto to assist with analysis. The researchers hope to have initial analysis completed after the beginning of 2011.
Charles Emlet is a professor in the Social Work Program at UW Tacoma campus.
This research projected is supported, in part, by a Research Grant Program, Government of Canada awarded to Dr. Emlet. To find out more about UW faculty research on cross-border and Canadian issues see http://jsis.washington.edu/canada/faculty/research.shtml.
Dr. Jegatheesan is an educational anthropologist. She is multilingual in six languages. One of her main areas of scholarly work concerns multilingualism and socialization among immigrants and indigenous children in the United States. She has studied Qur’anic language learning among Muslim children with autism in the Midwest and is currently nearing completion of native language retention among East Asian children with autism in Seattle.
|Helen Joe (7 years), Cowichan tribe child|
Using a naturalistic research design, this study examines the indigenous language learning experiences of the First Nations children from the Cowichan tribe in British Columbia. Participants in the study are young children ages 7–10 years old. The children are currently learning their indigenous language at home and in the community, supported by opportunities provided by their local tribal school and elders.
Data collection for this study consists of observations of everyday indigenous language use between caregiver and child at home and community. Child friendly interviews with the child examines children’s perceptions and feelings pertaining to learning and using their indigenous language. Interviews with the caregivers and elders in the community provides an in-depth understanding on their beliefs for the need for indigenous language preservation, the role these languages play in the lives of their younger and future Cowichan generation.
The above study will contribute to the strength of Canadian content in Dr. Jegatheesan’s ongoing research on ‘multilingual socialization and native language loss and retention’ among immigrant and indigenous children in the Pacific Northwest. Results from this study will also be used in Dr. Jegatheesan’s Language and Culture course in Winter 2011.
This project was supported, in part, by funding from the Center’s Program Enhancement Grant.
Anne Goodchild, Civil and Environmental Engineering, and graduate student Matthew Klein traveled to Canada this past summer, thanks to a Government of Canada Student Mobility grant. The grant funding helped support a comparative tour of two different border regions at the US-Canada border: Vancouver and the Cascades Gateway region, and the Toronto, Ontario, Detroit, and the Great Lakes region border crossings.
During the study tour, Professor Goodchild and Matt learned about some of the different organizational and physical structures of border and regional organizations. Their schedule was packed, and they met with engineers, business officials, faculty experts, and even had the pleasure of chatting with the Toronto police regarding their "suspicious activities!" (Said suspicious activities involved taking photos of interesting architecture around the city.)
Professor Goodchild and Matt also crossed the border in multiple locations and took public transit in order to better assess the border crossings and border regions. As part of their project, they have created a fascinating blog: Goods Movement Collaborative. They have plans to add to the blog, so be sure to bookmark it and check back frequently!
This project was supported by funding from a Student Mobility Grant, Government of Canada.
By Julia Herschensohn, Chair, Linguistics; Organizing Committee Member, Linguistics Symposium
Dr. Herschensohn’s research focuses on second language acquisition. She argues that language acquisition is not simply derived through communicative experience, but rather the resetting of parameters and transfer of already acquired grammatical principles within the lexicon of the new language.
The Linguistics Symposium on Romance Languages was held at the UW in late March—the third time that the UW hosted this important conference. On its fortieth anniversary, the Symposium featured a special parasession, “Sharing and Differing in Romance Bilingual Contact Environments,” with keynote addresses by internationally recognized specialists in Romance linguistics, Maria-Luisa Zubizarreta, University of Southern California; Donka Farkas, University of California, Santa Cruz; and Jurgen Klausenburger, UW. The conference attracted about one hundred participants from nine countries in Europe and the Americas. Eighteen of the fifty-two presentations were authored by Canadian linguists representing the University of Alberta, University of Ottawa, Carleton University, University of Toronto, and University of Québec, Montréal.
The parasession explored how languages in contact—for example, French and English in Canada, Quechua and Spanish in South America, and standard Italian and dialects—assimilate and dissimilate to each other in phonology, morphology, syntax, and other linguistic domains. For example, Michael Freisner of the University of Québec, Montréal, talked about the influence of English loan words on Montréal French vowels.
The symposium continued a decades long tradition of annual conferences on the topic of theoretical Romance linguistics, sponsored and organized by different scholars at North American institutions each year. Widely acknowledged to be the most prestigious annual conference in Romance linguistics, and funded exclusively by the host institution, the Symposium benefited from the support of the Canadian Studies Center to attract participation from prominent senior scholars and graduate students alike. Finally, the publication of selected and refereed research from the symposium will ensure a broad impact on the fields of Romance and general theoretical linguistics.
This project was supported, in part, by funding from the Center’s Title VI grant, U.S. Department of Education, Office of International Education and Graduate Program Service.
|From left, Paul Hirschbuhler, University of Ottawa; Marie Labelle, University of Québec, Montréal; Michael Herschensohn; and Julia Herschensohn.|
|Anne Goodchild joined other prominent scholars at the Woodrow Wilson Center in Washington, D.C., to share perspectives on Canada-U.S. trade and to present practical recommendations to federal policy-makers.|
Anne Goodchild, Civil and Environmental Engineering, presented a paper written with graduate student Matt Klein at the Seminar on Canada-U.S. Border Management Policy Issues, which was sponsored by the Border Policy Research Institute, Western Washington University, and hosted by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, DC. The paper, entitled, “Near Border Operations and Logistical Efficiency: Implications for Policy Makers,” was part of the panel, “Incremental Changes to Freight Processes.” The paper describes the logistics and practices near the Canada-U.S. border at Blaine, Washington, discovered through a recent survey of border crossers. The research suggests that policy changes would improve border operations, reduce truck miles travelled, emissions, and delays.
This project was supported, in part, by funding from the Center’s Title VI grant, US Department of Education, Office of International Education Programs Service.
|Charlotte with members of the Zapatista Junta (Government) of Oventik who are proud that everything they grow in their region is organic.|
Charlotte Coté, American Indian Studies, is currently researching Native food sovereignty issues. Her plan is to research how Canadian First Nations and other indigenous groups are making a strong effort to reconnect to their traditional foods as a way to strengthen their communities and identities. “Numerous studies conducted on indigenous peoples globally found that they have the worst health and nutrition of all communities in all countries world-wide,” says Charlotte. “In Canada and the United States, Aboriginal people suffer from chronic, debilitating, and life-threatening illnesses. As a way to overcome these major health problems, Native people are looking at ways to reincorporate traditional foods back into their diets and to restore cultural food practices.” Charlotte’s research took her to Chiapas where the Mayan people have maintained a cultural connection to their foods. This is becoming increasingly difficult as the Mexican Government continues to apply pressure to exploit the resources in the area. Since their revolt in 1994 the indigenous Zapitistas continue to fight for their homelands and for the right to subsist of these lands.
This project was supported, in part, by funding from the Center’s Program Enhancement Grant, Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada.
Annette Henry is a professor of Education at the University of Washington, Tacoma.
|Annette Henry (left) with guest speaker Özlem Sensoy from Simon Fraser University|
On May 11, 2010, Michelle Pidgeon, assistant professor of Higher Education at Simon Fraser University spoke with my education class at University of Washington Tacoma via a 90-minute video conference, giving a talk entitled "Indigenous Perspectives on Success, Responsibility, and Accountability in Higher Education."
Dr. Pidgeon shared findings from her research that shed light on how universities and colleges can become more successful places for Indigenous peoples. She gave examples from Indigenous research and practice that reframe the conversation to focus on institutional transformation through Indigenous understandings of success, responsibility, and accountability. Her presentation was welcomed by these educators, many of whom work with various marginalized populations in school settings. It allowed them to ask questions and make connections with their own practice. It also provided a broader, comparative and international context for understanding educational success, institutional transformation for Aboriginal youth in Canada.
On May 25th, Özlem Sensoy, also an assistant professor of Social Studies and Multicultural Education from Simon Fraser University, came to the UWT campus and spoke with the same class regarding The Breadwinner, a popular young adult novel about a Muslim girl in Taliban-run Afghanistan, a book embraced by Canadian and U.S. teachers and schools especially since 9/11.
Her talk, entitled "Saving Muslim Girls: The Curricular Construction of a Deficit Discourse," helped teachers examine how novels like The Breadwinner are best understood in a contemporary sociopolitical context in which Muslim girls in developing nations are constructed as the objects of Western interventions on a range of military, economic, humanitarian and educational fronts, and how this construction simultaneously and unproblematically positions Western girlhood as empowered, feminist, and liberated.
Both speakers helped us gain a better understanding of Canadian, North American, and international issues. Both Dr. Sensoy and Dr. Pidgeon helped us examine the ideological underpinnings of marginalized, racialized, and gendered groups and encouraged us as educators to reflect upon our assumptions about curriculum and pedagogy.
This project was supported, in part, by funding from the Center’s Title VI grant, US Department of Education, Office of International Education Programs Service.
|From front, Rob Williams; David Rosen, Marine Mammal Research Unit, University of British Columbia; Trevor Branch, UW School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (SAFS); Dawn Noren, Northwest Fisheries Science Center; Martin Krkosek, SAFS; and Erin Ashe, University of St. Andrews, Scotland.
While migrating from California to Alaska, whales transit a number of local, regional, national and international jurisdictions, and the laws in these locations affect the way we manage and protect whales and their habitat. Dr. Rob Williams, 2009-10 Canada- U.S. Fulbright Visiting Research Chair, will spend six months at University of Washington (UW), writing about Canadian and U.S. research and policy regarding marine mammal conservation.
Williams is a natural scientist from the Marine Mammal Research Unit at University of British Columbia (UBC), who earned his PhD from University of St. Andrews, Scotland. He will be working with scientists, policy analysts and environmental lawyers to explore transboundary (Canada-U.S.) issues in marine conservation. For 15 years, Williams has conducted conservationminded research on whales, with foundation funding, and has been a member of the International Whaling Commission’s Scientific Committee for 10 years. While at UW, he will examine case studies on anthropogenic ocean noise and nutritional requirements of killer whales. Canadian and U.S. legislation requires us to protect critical habitat of threatened species, but countries manage human activities in whale habitat in different ways.
Whale habitat must contain sufficient prey to meet animals’ nutritional needs. This is a key component of ecosystem based fishery management. Resident killer whales of British Columbia and Washington State feed primarily on Chinook salmon. As Canada and the United States adopt policies that take an ecosystem approach to managing salmon fisheries, one step is to estimate how much salmon is needed to maintain and recover vulnerable populations of killer whales, which could serve as icons of ecosystem-based fishery management.
In December, Williams hosted an interdisciplinary workshop at UW, involving physiologists from UBC and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and fisheries and ecological modelers from UW’s School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences. Together, the team integrated datasets from SeaWorld, government and independent scientists to estimate energetic requirements of these top predators. Their results have wide-reaching policy implications, but could feed immediately into recovery plans of agencies on both sides of the border.
Chronic ocean noise is another factor degrading whale habitat. Oceans are noisy, with ambient noise levels in some locations doubling every decade for the last 40 years. This trend will affect whales, which rely on sound to communicate. While military sonar makes headlines, a more insidious problem is chronic ocean noise from global shipping activities. Underwater noise can mask whale communication, resulting in acoustic habitat loss that is to whales what clear cut logging of rainforest is to coastal grizzly bears. The key difference, of course, is that marine habitat quality improves immediately when noise is reduced. Williams is hosting a symposium at UW in early 2010 to bring together acousticians, marine conservation biologists and policy analysts from across Canada and the United States to discuss acoustic masking. The acoustic ecology symposium builds on a two-year field study he conducted with Cornell University; participants will model the extent to which whale calls are masked by shipping noise, and make recommendations for mitigation and for best policies.
Williams looks forward to working with faculty and students across UW, and sharing his knowledge of marine wildlife and conservation. “Canada and the United States, each in its way, have progressive policies to protect whales and dolphins. The Fulbright provides an unparalleled opportunity to conduct research to evaluate lessons learned about how best to protect critical habitat of highly mobile and migratory species.”
The Canada-U.S. Fulbright Chair was established in 2006 by an agreement between the UW Vice Provost for International Education and the Foundation for Educational Exchange between Canada and the United States. The Chair is sponsored by Global Affairs, Social Sciences in the College of Arts and Sciences, the Graduate Fund for Excellence and Innovation, and the Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies.
Annette Henry is a Professor of Education at UW Tacoma specializing in multicultural and multilingual education.
|Annette Henry (left) with colleagues at the Toronto Institute.|
Based upon an urgent need to improve education for Toronto’s diverse students, York University and several schools in the North York/Toronto have embarked upon a three-year partnership that involves various members of the community (staff, parents, students, practitioners, activists, administrators). In May 2008, I was invited to participate in the project as well as to provide workshops at a two-day “kick-off” institute. I was invited as someone who has conducted research on culture and learning in the Toronto schools and who brings US cross-cultural, multicultural knowledge and practitioner experience. During the institute questions of student learning, mentoring and counseling, parental involvement, curriculum, pedagogy and school organization were also addressed.
I applied for a Canadian Studies Program Enhancement Grant to continue to work and learn with my Canadian colleagues. I participated in a three-day institute with the same teachers and members of the larger community on August 18-20, 2009. The institute was hosted by York University’s Center for Community Engagement, directed by Dr. Carl James. During this visit, I participated as an ethnographer/participant observer. This enabled me to explore possibilities for ongoing researcher, practitioner, or student collaborations/exchanges (either physical or virtual) and to consider ways that my own research and teaching at the UW can be informed by the collaborative project. Importantly, it enabled me to participate in follow-up conversations with some of the teachers from last year. There were also several opportunities for intensive small-group discussions centered on specific issues with a range of community members. Over 80 people attended including York faculty, Toronto District School Board administrators, teachers, school principals, social service agencies, high school students, graduate students, mentors, parents, and community members associated with Brookview middle school, Oakdale middle school, Shoreham K-5 school, Westview Centennial Secondary school, all in the Jane-Finch Area.
This project was supported, in part, by funding from the Center’s Program Enhancement Grant, Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada.
Charles A. Emlet is an associate professor of Social Work at UW Tacoma. He has worked as both a practitioner and research in aging and HIV since the 1980s.
|Charles Emlet (left) and David Brennan, University of Toronto.|
Similar to the epidemiological trends of the United States, Canada is experiencing increasing numbers of adults, age 50 and over, living with HIV disease. This increase is due not only to growing numbers of new infections among older adults, but to the increased longevity of people living with HIV/AIDS as a result of the success of HIV medications. While some epidemiological data exists on this population throughout Canada, little is known about the psychosocial and health related issues of this emerging population.
Dr. Charles Emlet from the University of Washington, Tacoma is teaming up with Dr. David Brennan from the Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work at the University of Toronto to explore these factors. Drs. Emlet and Brennan met at the University of Toronto this August to plan an initial study of older adults living with HIV/AIDS in the Greater Toronto area. Collaboration with community-based partners is part of the plan. The researchers hope to gather data on the demographic profile of older adults with HIV/AIDS, as well as obtain data on psychosocial issues such as stigma, depression, substance abuse and health related issues such as access to medical care, comorbidity and medication adherence. This research could make great strides in understanding the needs and issues of this population beyond simple demographic characteristics. The researchers are coordinating with long standing community-based HIV providers, such as Casey House, in their efforts. It is hoped that such a project can get off the ground in the next 6-12 months.
This project was supported, in part, by funding from the Center’s Program Enhancement Grant, Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada.
By Vladimir Kaczynski
|Vlad Kaczinski (center) with Jung-Keuk Kang (left), President, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Seoul, and Timothy C. Mack, President, World Future Society, Bethesda, Maryland. All attended the symposium on "Blue Economy Initiative for Green Growth" held May 7 in Seoul.|
Vladimir M. Kaczynski, School of Marine Affairs, is an affiliated faculty of the Center. Each fall he teaches a Jackson School of International Studies course, Comparative Marine Business in the North Pacific (SISRE/SMA 555).
On May 7 in Seoul, the Korean Maritime and the Korean Ocean Research and Development Institutes organized an international symposium entitled "Blue Economy Initiative for Green Growth." I presented two papers at this conference, “Present and Future of the Arctic Energy Resources Use,” and “The Arctic Era: Impact of Major Changes on Management and International Relations.”
The symposium promoted debate on Arctic affairs and contributed to the formulation of Korean policy toward the Arctic Ocean. As a non-coastal state, Korea is part of the international debate on the future of the Arctic as well as in the sustainable use of its resources.
Korea is interested in using the Northwest Passage to ship its goods to Europe. Korea also has great interest in oil and gas resources, and with its experience using technology in the icy conditions of the Sakhalin oil fields, will be a valuable partner in any joint ventures with coastal states like Canada, the US, or Russia. Canada would be an ideal partner with Korea in commercial arrangements in the Arctic.
An important part of the ensuing discussions were devoted to possible Korean economic cooperation with coastal Arctic states, including Canada as a potential partner.
Korea is calling for a peaceful settlement of conflicts, in line with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 1982, and avoidance of unilateral actions by countries bordering the Arctic. Such a solution would allow Korean participation in shaping the future of Arctic resource use and management and would take advantage of Korea’s industrial and research capabilities.
Comparative Marine Business in the North Pacific (SISRE/SMA 555) is supported, in part, by funding from the Center’s Title VI grant, US Department of Education, Office of International Education and Graduate Program Services.
The Fourth Annual Public Health Symposium: US/Canada Academic Collaboration in the Pacific Northwest was held in La Conner, Washington, 9-10 January 2009. Over 75 faculty and graduate students from UW’s School of Public Health, University of British Columbia School of Population and Public Health, and Simon Fraser Faculty of Health Sciences participated in the event. Jack Thompson and Bud Nicola, Department of Health Services and Northwest Center for Public Health Practice, UW School of Public Health, Laurie Goldsmith, Simon Frasier University Faculty of Health Sciences, and David Patrick, University of British Columbia School of Population and Community Health, served as this year’s chairs.
The Symposium opened Friday afternoon with ten excellent student poster sessions. Jack Thompson from the University of Washington School of Public Health convened the afternoon session with opening remarks from Martin Schechter, Director of the University of British Columbia, School of Population and Public Health; John O’Neil, Dean of the Simon Fraser University, Faculty of Health Sciences; and Patricia Wahl, Dean, UW School of Public Health. There were two plenary presentations on Friday and one Saturday morning covering diverse topics of international interest. These included treating heroin addiction in British Columbia, challenges in measuring health status in the US, and applying complexity systems approaches to addressing the obesity epidemic.
In addition to a wonderful dinner and fellowship on Friday evening, participants were treated to jazz from an impromptu assembly of musicians from symposium participants. All present were amazed at the level of talent – both in terms of musicianship and vocal talent – displayed by participants.
As has been the tradition from earlier symposia, the Saturday session then broke into inter-school break out groups in which faculty and students from each of the universities provided updates and new information to colleagues in the areas of health services research, infectious diseases, population health, global health, aboriginal health, and maternal and child health. The closing sessions summarized the learning from the plenary and breakout sessions. There seemed to be much interest and enthusiasm on the part of all of the participants. The annual symposium on cross-border public health has truly succeeded in bringing together researchers on both sides of the border to in compare best practices and to build international research networks.
This project was supported, in part, by funding from a Canadian Studies Center Program Enhancement Grant, Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada.
by Carl Sander
2008 International Canadian Studies Fellow Carl Sander is the Public Programs Manager at the Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture at UW. His duties often bring him into contact with a wide variety of Canadians, particularly Aboriginal artists and scholars.
The 2008 International Canadian Studies Institute took scholars from universities in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Alaska on a twelve-day trek through business, government, and cultural centers of British Columbia and the Yukon. A total of twelve professors from a wide range of disciplines made the excursion under the excellent guidance of Kevin Cook, Political, Economic and Academic Officer for the Canadian Consulate General in Seattle. Over ninety presentations by mayors, police officers, border security, business promoters, ambassadors, and curators filled each day with a comprehensive overview of how Canada views itself and us.
The days were a lively mix of boardroom debriefings followed by tours. For example, we spent four days on Vancouver Island with visits to a fish hatchery, a plywood veneer mill, the Parliament Buildings, the Royal British Columbia Museum, Maritime Forces Pacific Headquarters, and Butchart Gardens. In Vancouver, our stay coincided with the 18th annual Pacific Northwest Economic Regional Summit, affording us an opportunity to witness how policy is “hammered out” across borderlines to regulate commerce and promote trade.
Three days in the Yukon provided me with a rich resource of contacts for the Alaska Yukon Pacific (AYP) Exposition centennial celebration in 2009. The AYP Exposition was instrumental in the early planning of the UW campus, and its centennial will offer many opportunities for UW to connect with the Yukon once again.
I was struck by the difference between visiting Canada and visiting Europe or Asia. Usually, you return to the States with a vivid sense of North America’s uniqueness. However, a visit to Canada is like a family reunion or seeing a sibling use a tool in a way you’ve never seen before and thinking, “I wonder where s/he picked that up.”
The Burke Museum is evaluating its strategic mission, and the Fellowship provided me with a singular overview of Canadian practices in the field. My report on this subject to our planning committee is sure to inform and increase the breadth of our discussions. I also had the good fortune to meet numerous colleagues and make professional connections that will last a lifetime.
by Alexandra Harmon, Associate Professor, American Indian Studies
Alexandra Harmon, a former attorney for tribes in Washington State, is now an Associate Professor in American Indian Studies and an Affiliated Faculty in Canadian Studies. Harmon is an historian and the editor of a just-released volume published by UW Press, The Power of Promises: Rethinking Pacific Northwest Indian Treaties.
In 2005 – the sesquicentennial of ten US treaties with Indian tribes in Washington – UW’s Center for the Study of the Pacific Northwest hosted a conference to consider the significance of those treaties. Deeming it important to include the views of people outside the US, organizers invited Canadian scholars to participate and enlisted the Canadian Studies Center as a conference co-sponsor. Consequently, half the featured speakers were from Canada, and many other Canadians came to listen, including leaders of several First Nations. So stimulating was the ensuing exchange of ideas that it deserved a wider audience. Thirteen of the speakers therefore contributed essays to a volume recently published by University of Washington Press, The Power of Promises: Rethinking Pacific Northwest Indian Treaties.
Seven of the volume contributors – historians, lawyers, and one interdisciplinary scholar – are Canadian university faculty.
The book attests to the great significance of treaties with indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest on both sides of the international boundary. Treaties from the 1800s are the basis for land titles and rights claimed by millions of people in present-day British Columbia, Washington, Idaho, and Montana. They have been the focus of high-stakes litigation, which has confirmed their continuing legal force. And where the colonial governments took land without indigenous people’s consent, as in British Columbia and Alaska, authorities have found it necessary to negotiate new treaties or agreements.
Essays in The Power of Promises also reveal that the influence of developments pertaining to Indian treaties has crossed the forty-ninth parallel in both directions. Nineteenth-century negotiators for the US and the Crown took note of each other's legal doctrines and plans for Indians. Euro-Canadian and Euro-American settlers had similar extra-legal methods of expropriating land. More recently, Canadian courts have adopted principles articulated by US judges in treaty rights cases, and indigenous people in both countries have struggled to educate non-Indian judges about treaty history.
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by Cherry A. McGee Banks, Professor, Education, UW Bothell
|Cherry McGee Banks while teaching.|
As nation-states throughout the world experience globalization, technological change and increasing mobility, their demographic profiles are changing and reflecting increasing levels of racial, ethnic, religious, and cultural diversity (Sassen, 1999). For example, Canada as a result of political changes during the 1990s, experienced an increase in the number of people immigrating from Hong Kong and other parts of the British Commonwealth (Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 2007). During that same period, the United States also experienced an increase in the number of immigrants from Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean (US Census Bureau, 2008). As democratic nations such as Canada and the United States experience increasing levels of immigration, they must face the challenge of finding ways to maintain national cohesion while creating inclusive societies where people of all groups can experience a sense of belonging and have opportunities to fully participate in the social, economic and political spheres of their societies (Banks, J. A., 2007). In this paper, readers will learn about some of the ways that the United States and Canada have responded to the challenges and opportunities of diversity.
Diversity is embedded in multiple contexts. Those contexts can illuminate nuanced as well as salient ways in which diversity can impact people's lives. Three contexts, the political, legal, and historical, are discussed in this paper. While these contexts do not represent an exhaustive list of contexts in which diversity can be examined and discussed, they provide a template for identifying important issues that can frame a thoughtful comparative analysis of diversity in Canada and the United States. By using a comparative approach to explore how Canada and the US have respond to diversity, students can deepen their understanding of diversity in their own country while gaining new insights on the challenges and opportunities of diversity from a global perspective (Banks, et.al, 2004). A comparative approach can also result in insights and perspectives that can help students become more effective citizens in a changing and challenging global society. When doing comparative analysis of diversity, it is always important to take note of the terms that are used to describe it. For example, even though the term multicultural education is used in Canada and the United States to describe efforts to address diversity, other terms are also used. The term anti-racism is used in Canada, in some ways in opposition to multicultural education, to capture a stronger statement on culture as well as methods and perspectives for reducing racism and promoting tolerance. That term is rarely used in the United States. Instead terms like diversity and inclusion are frequently used in the US as synonyms for multicultural education.
Context is important when exploring issues of diversity because diversity and the issues related to it do not occur in a vacuum. Discussing race, class, gender, religion, culture, language, and other elements of diversity without identifying and acknowledging their multiple contexts can be misleading and result in superficial understandings that do not address their deep meaning. Identifying the contexts that highlight, influence, and shape diversity is an important step in understanding the nature of multicultural education within a nation-state. With that understanding in hand, educators can look beyond their national borders and learn from the experiences that others have had in organizing, implementing, and maintaining multicultural education programs. Exploring global perspectives on diversity without an understanding of its multiple contexts will likely result in frustration, confusion and a sense of being overwhelmed with its complexity. Context grounds discussions on global perspectives on diversity and adds to their authenticity.
The response of Canada and the US to the linguistic diversity within their borders is an example of how the political context can influence public policy on diversity. While there were Native American languages as well as a variety of European languages spoken during the early settlement of colonies in North America, English eventually became the dominant language in modern day Canada and the United States. However, Canada unlike the United States developed an official language education policy that includes self-contained, withdrawal, transitional, and mainstream programs that enable students to maintain their mother tongue (Ashworth, 1992) They also have an official bilingual policy that requires that all official documents are made available to the public in both English and French. The United States has a very different official response to language diversity. Many US politicians fiercely defend speaking English as a marker of an individual's commitment to the United States and their legitimacy for being in the country (King, 1997).
On the surface it would appear that there are stark differences between language policies in the United States and Canada. A close analysis, however, reveals a more complex picture. Students should be encouraged to examine power as a key concept and the following generalization to uncover nuanced elements of language policies in the US and Canada: Economic as well as political power can influence a nations' response to language diversity. In investigating the validity of that generalization students could research Canada's bilingual policy to determine the extent to which it is embedded in concerns about reconciling its linguistic duality brought about in part by the political power exercised by officials in Quebec, where a majority of French speaking Canadian citizens live (Moodley, 2001). They could also investigate the extent to which what is actually happening on the ground in the United States reveals a much more accepting climate for language diversity than statements by politicians suggest. Students could look at the ways in which economic factors are driving businesses in California and the southwest part of the US and Florida to print signs and provide brochures in Spanish, as well as hire bilingual staff. They could also look at the extent to which businesses in Hawaii are providing services in Asian languages.
When the political context of language policies is implicit, its connection to larger societal issues such as economic realities can be concealed and remain unexamined. In that sense, the complexity of language policies is difficult to fully analyze and understand. Examining the political context of language policies, where key concepts such as power can be used to illuminate them and generalizations can be used to compare and contrast policies in different nations states, can deepen students' understanding of the implicit as well as the explicit elements of the issue and the policies related to it.
The Japanese internment in the United States and Canada is an example of the extent to which laws exist within a socio-political context, which can result in gaps between the letter of the law and the ways in which it is implemented. Students can learn how two nations, which pride themselves on being nations of laws, failed to protect the rights of individuals within their borders.
After the Japanese government bombed Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 both the US and Canadian governments interned people of Japanese decent (Daniels, 1981). The internment, however, was not the first act of discrimination directed toward them. Japanese people living in the US and Canada did not have the full protection of the law long before World War II began (Okihiro, 2001). For many years Japanese immigrants were prevented, by law, from becoming citizens in both countries. There were also legal restrictions on their ability to immigrate to the US and Canada. In 1907, the Canadian government limited the number of Japanese immigrants to 400 people a year. The US also used legal measures such as the Gentleman's Agreement to restrict Japanese immigration. In addition, the California Alien Land Law restricted the rights of Japanese to own and lease land. Students can use the key concepts such as prejudice and discrimination to reflect on the following generalization: When sanctioned by law, prejudice can lead to increasing levels of discrimination.
Leading up to the internment, people of Japanese descent living in British Columbia and the Western part of the US experienced increasing levels of discrimination (Okihiro, 2001; Scantland, 1986). Initially they were surveilled by their governments, later their governments required them to surrender cameras, radios, binoculars, and other items that were identified as contraband. Eventually motivated by fear, economic gain, and prejudice, the Japanese were sent to internment camps. Most of the Japanese who lived in Canada in the 1940s lived in British Columbia which was the site of eight internment camps. Sixteen internment camps were established in the US.
In some respects, people on the margins of society are most keenly aware of the gap between the law as an ideal and the reality of the law in daily practice. One way that students can get a sense of that gap is to examine how people on the margins of society as well as other groups describe their experiences with the law and with representatives of the legal system. The law and its enforcers can look one way from the margins of society and quite differently from the top (official) levels of society. Exploring that gap can provide some insights on the law and the ways in which various segments of society view it.
Canada and the US share an important history for people of African descent. During the Revolutionary War, Africans who were enslaved in the United States escaped to Canada in search of freedom. Between 1783 and 1785, Black Loyalists established communities in Nova Scotia where some of their descents remain today (Grant, 1973). Once in Canada some of the Africans left and established communities in Sierra Leone on the west coast of Africa. The story of enslaved Africans who fought with the British during Revolutionary War highlights the importance of freedom for people who were enslaved and the lengths to which they were willing to go to achieve it. The story of these individuals and their experiences however, are not generally discussed in US and Canadian textbooks.
At the end of the Revolutionary War, General George Washington, who would later become the first president of the United States, demanded that the enslaved Africans who had joined forces with the British be returned to their owners. Instead Sir Guy Carleton, the British Commander in chief, agreed to pay the Americans for their freedom and allow them to stay in Canada (Remembering Black Loyalists, 2001). Enslaved Africans had also joined Washington's Revolutionary Army and fought against the British in hope of earning their freedom. The economic value of enslaved Africans coupled with the newly formed and fragile union, which supported slavery, allowed it to continue in the US for almost another 100 years. Students can use key concepts such as change, cooperation, and conflict to reflect on generalizations about the legacy of slavery and the ways in which the past is implicated in the present (Casiani, 2007).
Educators who have an understanding of the ways in which contemporary issues related to diversity are frequently be embedded in an historical context can engage their students in inquiry that can help them uncover and examine elements of their nation's history related intergroup interactions (Banks, C.A.M., 2005). As educators review their curriculum, they should also consider the extent to which students are encouraged to understand and deal reflectively with intergroup conflicts and tensions in their nation's history and in contemporary society. They can use questions such as: Were groups that are currently experiencing conflict in the US and Canada always involved in conflict? Were groups that are now part of the mainstream in the US and Canada always part of the mainstream? The answers to these and similar questions can give students a more complex view of intergroup interactions and provide teachers with some direction for curriculum revision.
The issues covered in this article can serve as a departure point for readers to engage their colleagues in discussions about multicultural issues in the US and Canada. The educational implications of examining issues of diversity in multicultural nation states such as Canada and the United States are complex and cannot be addressed instantaneously. They must be addressed over time. They also benefit from having diverse perspectives raised and examined. This can happen most effectively when a comparative approach is employed. Using a comparative approach for examining multicultural issues within the political, legal, and historical contexts that surround them can reveal important intersections, parallels, and connections between Canada and the United States as well as other nations.
Ashworth, M. (1992). "Projecting the past into the future. A look at ESL for children in Canada." In K.A. Moodley (Ed.). Beyond Multicultural Education: Interrnational Perspectives (pp. 114-131). Calgary: Detselig.
Banks, C.A.M. (2005). Improving multicultural education: Lessons from the Intergroup education movement. New York: Teachers College Press.
Banks, J.A. (2007). Diversity and citizenship education: Global perspectives. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Banks, J.A. Banks, C.A.M., Cortes, C.E., Hahn, C. L., Merryfield, M.M., Moodley, K.A., Murphy-Shigematsu, S. Osler, A., Park, C. and Parker, W.C. () Democracy and diversity: Principals and concepts for educating citizens in a global age. Seattle, WA: Center for Multicultural Education, College of Education University of Washington Seattle.
Brookfield, S.D. (1999). Discussion as a way of teaching: Tools and techniques for democratic classrooms. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Cascini, D. (2007). "The legacy of slavery." Retrieved July 3, 2008 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6456765.stm.
Citizenship and Immigration Canada. (2007) Retrieved, July 10, 2008 from www.cic.gc.ca.
Daniels, R. (1981). Concentration Camps, North America : Japanese in the United States and Canada During World War II. Malabar, Fla.: R.E. Krieger.
Grant, J. T. (1973). "Black Immigrants into Nova Scotia, 1776-1815." Journal of Negro History, 58, (3) pp. 253-270.
King, R.D. (1997). "Should English be the law?" The Atlantic online. Retrieved, July 14, 2008) from http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/97apr/english.htm
Moodley, K.A. (2001). "Multicultural education in Canada: Historical development and current status." In J. A. Banks & C. A. M. Banks (Eds.) Handbook of research on multicultural education. 2nd Ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Okihiro, G.Y. (2001). The Columbia Guide to Asian American History. New York: Columbia University Press.
"Remembering Black Loyalists." (2001). Retrieved July 1, 2008 from http://museum.gov.ns.ca/blackloyalists/who.htm
Sassen, S. (1999). Guests and aliens. New York: The New Press.
Scantland, A. C. (1986). Study of Historical Injustice to Japanese Canadians. Vancouver, B. C.: Parallel Publishers Ltd.
US Census Bureau: Immigration Data. (2008). Retrieved, July 11, 2008 from http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/immigration.html
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by Daniel Hart, Center Chair and Director and Co-Director of Native Voices
|Three generations of UW’s Native Voices Program graduate students at the 6th Annual Native Voices Film Festival|
The Canadian Studies Center was pleased to be able to partner with the Native Voices Program and the United Indians of All Tribes Foundation to present the 6th Annual Native Voices Film Festival, an event that featured many First Nations guests, films and filmmakers. The four-day event, that ran from February 28th through March 2nd, featured the premiers of five new films and included a special honoring of the life and works of Native filmmaker Phil Lucas.
All of the new Native Voices films had a powerful cross-border focus dealing with issues that strongly affect both Canadian First Nations and Native American communities. Thursday evening saw the premiers of two new works: Frybread Babes by Steffany Suttle, an intimate new film that speaks about Native women, body image and identity; and, In Laman’s Terms: Looking at Lamanite Identity by Angelo Baca, a provocative work that explores the impacts that the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and the Book of Mormon had on native peoples and communities.
On Friday, three new films premiered. History Lessons, by Clark Miller, explores how Native peoples are excluded from North American history, and how media and popular culture create the “Indian of the white imagination.” Travels Across The Medicine Line by former Canadian Fulbright scholar, Lyana Patrick, is a historical and contemporary look at the impact of the Canada-US border on Indigenous nations – the border has severed ancient ties to families, ceremonies and homelands. Finally, Reclaiming Our Children: a Story of the Indian Child Welfare Act, by Marcella Ernest, is a powerful new documentary that tells the story of the wholesale separation of Indian children from their families, one the most destructive and tragic aspects of Native life today.
Highlights of the festival were the events honoring the life of Phil Lucas (1942-2007), the acclaimed Choctaw filmmaker who sadly passed away this year. Over the course of his 30-year career, Phil produced many remarkable works, many of which were filmed in Canada in First Nations communities and had tremendous international impact influencing an entire generation of filmmakers. Phil was a pioneering voice in indigenous media, one of the first Native Americans to take control of the camera in an industry where Native voices are rarely heard.
The festival screened a number of Phil’s films. Healing the Hurts (1989) tells the story of adult survivors of Indian Residential Schools who gathered at Alkali Lake, British Columbia to attend a four-day intensive workshop on healing the hurt and shame of the boarding school experience. The attendees this healing ceremony accepted the camera and crew as participants in the process, resulting in the creation of this powerful film. Voyage of Rediscovery (1990) tells the moving story of Frank Brown, who as a young Heiltsuk Native boy of Bella Bella, British Columbia, found himself in trouble with the law. In an agreement between family and judge, traditional Heiltsuk law was applied and he was exiled from his village to a remote island for eight months. As a result, his life was transformed and he eventually led a canoe project, which helped to restore a sense of pride to his people. Finally, The Honor of All (1987) was screened, a groundbreaking work that tells the true story of the Alkali Lake Band of Indians in British Columbia and their successful struggle to conquer alcoholism in their remote community. The 1987 docu-drama won the prestigious international public television INPUT award and inspired Native recovery movements around the world.
What was especially exciting and rewarding about this year’s festival is that many of the First Nations participants of Phil’s films were able to come down for the screenings of their works. Andy and Phyllis Chelsea, and Fred and Irene Johnson of the Alkali Lake Indian Band, were able to respond to questions about The Honor of All, and Frank and Kathy Brown of the Heiltsuk Nation were able to answer questions about Voyage of Rediscovery. On Sunday, there was an inspiring memorial service for Phil Lucas at Daybreak Star Cultural Center, with hundreds of people from the US and Canada in attendance.
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by Denyse Delcourt, Associate Professor, French and Italian Studies
|Denyse Delcourt, Gabrielle and the Long Sleep into Mourning (translated by Eugene Vance). Los Angeles: Green Integer, 2007|
Denyse Delcourt is an Associate Professor in the Division of French and Italian Studies. She has been teaching at the University of Washington since 1990. Other teaching experiences include Queens (Canada), Emory, Northwestern and Duke universities. Her teaching interests are Old French language and literature, contemporary Québécois literature and French fairy tales.
For someone who is trained to do literary analysis, writing a novel is like "crossing to the other side." Creative fiction has often been compared to walking through a dark and unfamiliar road using a flashlight. With only a bit of the road illuminated ahead one has to walk slowly, hesitantly and sometimes fearfully. For a scholar, writing fiction can be a very humbling experience.
In preparation for this novel I spent a month doing research at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Montréal. Since my novel is set in Québec during the fifties I needed to get a better sense of the period. What was happening in Québec at the time? What did people listen to on the radio? What did they eat and drink? What did they wear at school, funerals, weddings, etc.? To find answers to these questions, I consulted numerous newspapers and magazines published in Montréal between 1939 and 1955, books on etiquette, and text books used in French-Canadian elementary schools during the forties and fifties. The Bibliothèque Nationale in Montréal has an impressive collection of such materials. It was a pleasure to spend time doing research in this venerable institution.
Before I start writing fiction, I always do an outline. Even though I know by experience that the order I set for the chapters and even the role I am assigning to any given character may change along the way, I find it very useful to organize the materials beforehand.
When I was working on Gabrielle I never told myself that I was writing a "novel." That would have been too overwhelming. Instead, I followed Anne Lamott's wonderful advice to fiction writers by taking it "bird by bird." What I was writing every day was only a "bird;" that is, a small piece of a novel, a fragment or a scene. That kept me going until the accumulation of fragments was ready to be called a novel.
A word about the English translation – Eugene Vance did a remarkable job translating my novel. It is very close to the original, and beautifully done. For those who cannot read French I highly recommend it.
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by Branden Born, Assistant Professor, Urban Design and Planning
Branden Born is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Urban Design and Planning. He studies land use, planning process, and urban food systems. He is a member of the American Planning Association’s Food System Planning Committee and the Seattle-King County Acting Food Policy Council.
|Branden Born is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Urban Design and Planning.|
The Canadian Studies Center recently co-sponsored a City of Seattle Transformational Lecture Series event that focused on food systems and an increasingly important governance tool known as a Food Policy Council (FPC). Wayne Roberts, the project director for arguably the most advanced FPC in North America, the Toronto Food Policy Council was the featured speaker. His talk was followed by a panel discussion that I served on along with fellow Canadian Herb Barbolet, representing Vancouver’s FPC, and Steve Cohen from the City of Portland and the Portland-Multnomah FPC.
Roberts' lecture focused on ways that food and cities and their residents interact, and how food systems – the people and processes that produce, process, market, distribute, consume, and dispose of food – can be tools of economic development and community empowerment. The lecture focused on the projects of the Toronto FPC.
Since there aren't any city departments of food, FPCs have functioned as multi-stakeholder advisory bodies to government. Their suggestions address issues of food access, nutritional adequacy, economic impacts of food systems, environmental effects of food-related choices, and more. From the provision of healthful foods through grocery stores and farmers' markets, to developing and protecting community gardens, to closing resource loops through composting and food rescue, cities have a hand in making sure their residents have food security or, access to culturally appropriate, nutritionally adequate food through non-emergency sources at all times. And while the Toronto FPC is a pioneer, urban planners and policy makers are turning to FPCs with growing frequency: in the last few years the number of food policy councils in North America has doubled to approximately 70. There are now nine separate efforts at different stages of development in Washington alone. Roberts and the panel discussed the many strategies of their councils and fielded questions from an enthusiastic audience that filled City Hall’s Bertha Landes Room.
The importance of food policy to cities and metropolitan areas is a focus of my graduate course, Urban Planning and the Food System, which was offered at the UW through the Department of Urban Design and Planning in the fall term. Using examples from Canada, the US, and beyond, the course explores food production, global trade, social justice and food access, environmental sustainability, and urban policy formation. Roberts also joined former students and college faculty for a presentation and discussion the day after his lecture downtown. Students from the class have helped conduct research in support of Washington's Local Farms, Health Kids legislation. They have also assisted the City of Seattle, the Acting Food Policy Council, and local farmers' markets with service learning research projects.
Seattle, with its P-Patches and progressive-thinking government is an urban leader along with a handful of other cities in the US when it comes to food policy, and yet knowledge sharing across state borders both north and south is pushing food policy understanding and development into new areas for all involved.
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by Jack Thompson, Director, Northwest Center for Public Health Practice
|Jack Thompson, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, chaired the Population Health symposium.|
Jack Thompson is the Director of the Northwest Center for Public Health Practice at the University of Washington and a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Health Services. He is the Principal Investigator for the Northwest Center for Public Health Preparedness Program, supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He is also Co-Principal Investigator for the Public Health Training Center supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration. Jack has been on the faculty of the School of Public Health and Community Medicine since November of 1994.
For the first decade or so of its existence, the Northwest Center for Public Health Practice (located within the UW School of Public Health and Community Medicine) defined itself in terms of the Northwest United States. Strong relationships were formed with state and local public health organizations and with tribes in Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming. But it wasn’t until the first Cross Border Preparedness Conference, held in Vancouver, British Columbia in April 2004, that we truly became a Northwest Center – as partnerships developed with public health researchers in British Columbia and other Northwest provinces. This conference (now in its fifth year, with a meeting scheduled for Bellingham in May 2008) gave rise to another successful cross-border collaboration – the Research Symposium, a collaboration originally between the U.W. School of Public Health and the University of British Columbia’s Department of Health Services and Epidemiology.
There have been three symposia to date and I have had the honor of coordinating each of them in collaboration with colleagues from the University of British Columbia and – this year – Simon Fraser University. The first symposium was held in Vancouver, British Columbia, in Fall 2005. The second was held a year later on the UW campus. The third symposium, now including Simon Fraser University, was held last January in La Conner, Washington, at a conference facility. Eighty faculty and students from the three universities attended the two-day event.
The first day was highlighted by a keynote speech from Dr. Clyde Hertzman, Director of the Human Early Learning Partnership in the College for Interdisciplinary Studies at the University of British Columbia that highlighted comparative health status information from British Columbia and Washington State. This led to lively discussion about the similarities in demographics of the populations but significant differences in the organization of health and health care – and in health outcomes. The second day consisted of discussions in eight break-out groups that picked up where Clyde’s remarks left off. The groups focused on Population Health, Global Health, Health Services Research, Maternal and Child Health, Infectious Disease Control, and Indigenous Health Issues. Faculty and students from the three institutions came up with action plans for each group that hopefully will lead to further collaborations in the Northwest in the coming year. Areas of interest across the groups included collaborative approaches to student practica, the possibility of developing joint degree programs across the schools, development of common sets of health indicators that could be tracked over time, joint presentations at upcoming conferences, and collaborations on specific research projects. Summaries of the breakout discussions were presented in a closing session facilitated by Dr. King Holmes, Chair of the Global Health Department at the UW.
This has been a very rich and valuable experience for me. In the coming year the Northwest Center and our partner universities will track progress on these collaborations. As always, we will look for opportunities to incorporate such planning, discussions and expanding partnerships into our work. We are already looking forward to the Fourth Research Symposium in 2009.
The annual symposia are supported, in part, by funding from the Center’s US Department of Education, Title VI grant and by a Foreign Affairs, Canada Program Enhancement Grant.
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A Profile of Sharon Hargus, Professor, Linguistics
|Mike Abou, native speaker of Tsek’ene, and Sharon Hargus, working together in Fort Ware, British Columbia, Summer 2007.|
Sharon Hargus, a professor in the Department of Linguistics, just had her book, Witsuwit'en Grammar: Phonetics, Phonology, Morphology published by University of British Columbia Press (2007). The book summarizes her research on the word-level grammar of Witsuwit'en (a.k.a. Wet'suwet'en), a language of the Athabaskan (or Athapaskan) family spoken in Smithers, British Columbia and neighboring communities. Witsuwit'en, a dialect of the Babine-Witsuwit'en language, is closely related to the better-known Carrier language spoken to the east. Witsuwit'en is endangered, with less than 200 native speakers left that are 55 years of age or older.
Hargus also recently received a $250,000 grant from the National Science Foundation for a project entitled, "Athabaskan Personal Histories of Climate Change in Alaska and Canada," (2007–2010). With this award, she has begun the next phase of research on Witsuwit'en, sentence-level grammar. The award also allows her to continue her research on two other Athabaskan languages: Tsek'ene (or Sekani), spoken in the Rocky Mountain Trench area north of Prince George, British Columbia, and Deg Xinag, spoken in western central Alaska on the Yukon River and one of its tributaries, the Innoko River. Tsek'ene and Deg Xinag are also endangered. Tsek’ene has about 20 native speakers remaining, ages 60 and older, and Deg Xinag has seven native speakers remaining, ages 72 and older. One of the goals of the current grant is to extend the documentation on each of these Athabaskan languages in the area of syntax and texts. This fall Hargus was engaged in fieldwork in British Columbia in Fort Ware and the Smithers area, where she collected narratives about climate change in these two areas of northern British Columbia from speakers of Tsek'ene and Witsuwit'en.
Hargus's doctoral student Julia Miller has been involved in research on Beaver, an Athabaskan language closely related to Tsek'ene, since 2003. Miller’s field research on Beaver tone, lexicon and verb paradigms is supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. Miller is currently in her third year of a Foreign Language and Area Studies fellowships for Beaver language and culture study awarded through the Canadian Studies Center.
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